Unpacking the ‘Likelihood of Confusion’ in Pharmaceutical Trademarks 

  • Trademark Clearance
Unpacking the ‘Likelihood of Confusion’ in Pharmaceutical Trademarks 

In the dynamic world of pharmaceuticals, where innovation and competition are constant companions, trademarks play a pivotal role in shaping brand identity and consumer trust. However, navigating the realm of pharmaceutical trademarks is not without its challenges, and one of the paradoxes that often perplexes both legal experts and industry professionals is the concept of “likelihood of confusion.”   

In this blog post, we delve into the intricacies of this paradox and explore how it influences the pharmaceutical sector. 

Understanding ‘likelihood of confusion’

Likelihood of confusion, in simple terms, refers to the probability or chance that people might get confused between two similar things. In the context of trademarks, it means there’s a risk that consumers might mistake one product or brand for another due to similarities in their names, logos, or other identifying features.  

For the pharmaceutical industry, this concept becomes particularly complex. The industry is marked by a delicate balance between promoting innovation and ensuring consumer safety. Having any likelihood of confusion can have several implications, such as:  

Consumer safety and health risks 

If pharmaceutical trademarks are too similar, there’s a risk that consumers, including healthcare professionals, might confuse one medication for another. This confusion could lead to incorrect usage, dosage errors, or other safety issues, potentially jeopardizing patient health. 

Brand recognition and trust 

If consumers are confused about which brand’s products they are purchasing, it could undermine the efforts of pharmaceutical companies to establish and maintain a positive brand image. Plus, confusing trademarks can create negative experiences for patients who may struggle to identify their medications, potentially leading to frustration, anxiety and a decline in trust. 

Legal challenges 

Likelihood of confusion can lead to legal disputes between pharmaceutical companies over trademark infringement. These legal battles can be time-consuming and costly, using resources that could otherwise be invested in research and development. 

Innovation and market access 

Striking a balance between protecting trademarks and fostering innovation is crucial. Excessive restrictions due to the fear of confusion may hinder the introduction of new drugs or variations of existing medications, limiting innovation within the pharmaceutical sector. 

Regulatory scrutiny 

Regulatory authorities closely monitor trademarks in the pharmaceutical industry to ensure consumer safety. Likelihood of confusion may result in increased regulatory scrutiny, with authorities implementing stricter guidelines to mitigate risks. 

Sun Pharma Laboratories Limited v Bdr Pharmaceuticals International Pvt Ltd & Anr 

In the case of Sun Pharma Laboratories Limited v Bdr Pharmaceuticals International Pvt Ltd & Anr, Sun Pharma filed a suit against Bdr Pharmaceuticals for trademark infringement. Sun Pharma sought a permanent injunction to prevent Bdr Pharmaceuticals from infringing on its trademark “Labebet” with the similar mark “Lulibet” used on an antifungal cream, stating it was causing confusion among consumers. 

The court emphasized the importance of comparing pharmaceutical trademarks as a whole, considering their look, sound, and potential for confusion among consumers, especially in the context of medicinal products where confusion could have severe health implications.  

Despite arguments from Bdr Pharmaceuticals regarding differences in product administration and the origin of the mark “Labebet,” the court found “Lulibet” to be deceptively like “Labebet.” The judgment emphasizes the stringent approach taken in cases involving pharmaceutical trademarks, prioritizing consumer safety over potential economic losses for brand owners. 

The Paradox: Balancing innovation and safety 

Name saturation is a huge challenge for every industry at the moment. The more names that are registered, the fewer there are left available for use.   

This is a challenge we have seen in the pharma sector. Companies are striving to be innovative and want products that stand out in a crowded market, however, developing unique and distinctive trademarks is becoming increasingly more difficult. The industry is caught between creating memorable and distinctive trademarks and avoiding confusion that could jeopardize consumer safety. Thus, striking the right balance is crucial for fostering competition while safeguarding public health. 

To better understand the paradox, let’s explore an example that highlights the challenges posed by the likelihood of confusion in pharmaceutical trademarks. 

Likelihood of confusion example: Similar names, different functions 

Let’s say there are two over-the-counter pharmaceutical products with similar names but vastly different therapeutic functions. One is a pain reliever, while the other is an anti-inflammatory medication. The challenge here is to ensure that consumers do not mistake one for the other, as the consequences could be severe. Balancing the need for distinct trademarks with the risk of confusion is paramount to ensure that consumers can easily differentiate between these medications.  

Clear and unique branding becomes a safeguard against potential mix-ups that could result in harmful outcomes. However, the challenge goes beyond the realm of nomenclature. It extends to the visual elements, packaging, and overall presentation of these pharmaceutical products.  

Design choices play a crucial role in aiding consumers and healthcare professionals to be able to quickly identify the intended use and function of each medication. Regulatory authorities must establish guidelines that strike a balance between encouraging innovation in branding and ensuring that distinctiveness does not compromise clarity. 

Trademark law provides a legal framework to address the paradox of likelihood of confusion in the pharmaceutical industry. Key legal considerations include: 


The more distinctive a pharmaceutical trademark is, the less likely it is to cause confusion. Legal standards often consider factors such as the visual, phonetic, and conceptual similarity between trademarks. 

Prioritizing public health 

Regulatory authorities play a crucial role in evaluating pharmaceutical trademarks. Their decisions must prioritize public health and safety while allowing for healthy competition in the market. 

Market dynamics 

Understanding the dynamics of the pharmaceutical market is essential for assessing the likelihood of confusion. Factors such as market share, consumer demographics, and advertising practices all contribute to the overall context. 

Strategies for mitigating confusion 

There are various strategies pharmaceutical companies can employ to mitigate the likelihood of confusion while maintaining a competitive edge: 

Conducting comprehensive trademark searches 

Before introducing a new trademark, pharma companies should conduct thorough searches to identify existing trademarks that may lead to confusion. This proactive approach helps prevent potential legal issues. 

Having clear labelling and packaging 

Clear and distinctive labelling and packaging play a crucial role in minimizing confusion. Providing accurate information about the product’s name, purpose, and manufacturer helps consumers make informed choices. 

Collaborating with regulatory authorities 

Engaging in transparent communication with regulatory authorities ensures that pharma companies align their trademark strategies with industry regulations. This collaborative approach contributes to a harmonized system that prioritizes both innovation and consumer safety. 

Talk to a pharma expert 

Navigating the complexities of trademarks in the pharmaceutical sector demands collaboration between industry stakeholders, legal experts, and regulatory authorities to ensure a vibrant and competitive landscape without compromising public health. Learn more about our pharmaceutical trademark solutions or talk to us to find out how Corsearch can help you prevent consumer confusion.